We won four grants to reanalyze four published journal articles in the field of public health. These grants covere four subjects: Cash transfers and sexually transmitted diseases, the necessary training of healthcare providers, circumcision and HIV and the affect of the US government’s spending in Africa on mortality. The grants come from 3ie, which is funded by the Gates Foundation. The work will be performed by a lab listed on Science Exchange: the University of Nebraska’s Center for Collaboration on Research Design and Analysis.
The grants cover various aspects of healthcare in developing countries. The first grant will analyze a paper published in Lancet in 2012 by Sarah Baird, Richard Garfein, Craig McIntosh and Berk Ozler. This paper, Effect of a Cash Transfer Programme for Schooling on Prevalence of HIV and Herpes Simplex Type 2 in Malawi: A Cluster Randomized Trial, showed that direct cash transfers decreased the prevalence of HIV and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) as well as the sexual behavior of the young women receiving transfers for 18 months. The second grant will reanalyze the 2012 paper published in Lancet, Task shifting of antiretroviral treatment from doctors to primary-care nurses in South Africa (STRETCH): a pragmatic, parallel, cluster-randomised trial. This paper examined the affect of using nurses, instead of scarce doctors to administer anti-retroviral treatment to patients with HIV. They found that STRETCH was not inferior to standard care and supports expanding the pool of ART prescribers beyond doctors to nurses. The third grant seeks to replicate the paper from 2011, Effect of circumcision of HIV-negative men on transmission of human papillomavirus to HIV-negative. This paper addresses an important question about HPV prevention and it evaluates male circumcision as a HPV prevention strategy among rural African HIV-negative women who lack both resources and vaccines that cover the existing high-risk HPV genotypes. The results from Wawer et al. (2011) provide strong support for use of male circumcision for HPV prevention and cervical neoplasia in HIV negative female partners. The fourth grant will examine a study published in JAMA in 2012 titled, HIV Development Assistance and Adult Mortality in Africa. This study investigates the relationship between increased funding to countries receiving aid through the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS relief (PEPFAR) and adult mortality more generally. PEPFAR is the initiative developed by President George W Bush which increased funding to select countries from 2004 to 2010. The main finding of the paper is that PEPFAR countries had dramatically lower mortality than non-PEPFAR countries.
Dr. Nicole Perfito, Science Exchange lead for these projects says, “Using Science Exchange to gather the resources to reanalyze these experiments means it can be done faster and cheaper than would normally occur.”
The analysis of these papers will bring extra scientific rigor to the study of health in developing countries. The University of Nebraska’s Center for Collaboration on Research Design and Analysis will do the analysis of these journal articles under the direction of Dr. Nicole Perfito at Science Exchange. Once the results are complete, these replicated studies will be published in peer-reviewed journals.